With the recent invasion of the Burning Legion - which left the northern kingdom of Lordaeron in ruins - Stormwind now stands as the last bastion of human civilization. Following the heroic examples of the legendary Sir Lothar and King Llane, the defenders of Stormwind are considered to be among the fiercest warriors in the land. They stand resolute in their charge to maintain the honor and might of humanity in an ever-darkening world.
Immediately after the events of the Third War, Azarothian Humanity was on the ropes, and the race's future was somewhat in question. Humans have perhaps suffered the most out of all the races of Azeroth, having endured a bloody, genocidal invasion by the Demon-corrupted orcs and losing almost all their northern population to the Plague. Out of the millions that once populated the Eastern Kingdoms in many splendid and wonderful cities, only hundreds of thousands still live. Despite this, in recent years the Humans have devoted themselves to struggling back from the brink of racial extinction. Human lands are gradually being repopulated, and the Humans have been able to consistently maintain strong garrisons for their cities as well. The Humans' primary threat is now probably the Forsaken who are continuing their attempts to expand south from Tirisfal into Arathi, although the Human presence in the region remains strong, causing the Hillsbrad area to be one of Azeroth's major battlefields.
Despite all this, humans continue to be vigilant, and - perhaps as a result of their struggles - they have banded closer together and with the Alliance as a whole.
Today, the Child King Anduin Wrynn oversees Stormwind, under the watch of the council of Nobles and the Regent Lady Katrana Prestor. While the Empire of Stormwind has lost much of its glory, it still retains some ties with the cities of Darkshire, Lakeshire, Goldshire, Southshore and to a lesser extent, Menethil Harbor. Those cities fall under the protection and leadership of Stormwind, but they also have their own local military forces and independent democractic election.
Theramore Isle is an independent nation that keeps close ties with Stormwind and is under the watchful leadership of the young mage Jaina Proudmoore, formerly of Kul Tiras. Kul Tiras itself, while still a member of the Alliance, is an independent nation under the rule of Daelin Proudmoore. The city-state of Dalaran, with its powerful mages, still retains some control over Hillsbrad and Silverpine Forest. In addition, there is an independent human enclave in the Arathi Highlands, the remnants of the Empire of Strom. It is rumored the once-allied empire of Gilneas is still flourishing and populated with humans - but no word has been heard of them for years.
Humans at the Dawn of History Humans have built their cities of old with dignity and strengthThe earliest humans (then known as the "azotha") were apparently a cousin offshoot of dwarves. Some modern human femalesAPG 63, have retained the ability to turn their flesh to stone or steel like the dwarves due to an ancient connection to the Titan forger Khaz'Goroth. When Rhonin was captured and magically scanned to discover what manner of creature he is, the sorcerer examining him finds that he is biologically closest to the Earthen.
Before the Great Sundering, the Azotha were a primitve nomadic race. They were nearly as savage as their foes among the Trolls, and both groups wandered the land battling each other while trying to plant the seeds of their cultures. The humans were nomadic hunter-gatherers and divided into many tribes. The Sundering nearly wiped out the humans, who eked out sustenance from the ashes of the aftermath of the destruction.LoC 16-18
Humans joined the forefront of Azerothian history during the Troll Wars. With the help of the high elves, humans learned magic and waged a bitter war against the Trolls that once spanned the entire length of the Eastern Kingdoms and were a dire threat. Eventually humanity proved superior to the Trolls, and they built the nation of Strom, and later the empire of Arathor. This empire gradually expanded and splintered into seven separate, sometimes warring empires, for over 1200 years until the creation of the Alliance.